Black holes are one among the strangest things in existence. They don’t seem to form any sense at all. Where do they are available from? and what happens if you fall into one? Stars are incredibly massive collections of mostly hydrogen atoms that collapsed from enormous gas cloud under their own gravity. In their core, fusion crushes hydrogen atoms into helium releasing a tremendous amount of energy This energy, within the form of radiation, pushes against gravity, maintaining a fragile balance between the two forces. As long as there’s fusion in the core, a star remains stable enough.
But for stars with way more mass then our own sun the heat and pressure at the core allow them to fuse heavier elements until they reach iron. Unlike all the weather that went before, the fusion process that makes iron doesn’t generate any energy. Iron builds up at the middle of the star until it reaches a critical amount and the balance between radiation and gravity is suddenly broken. The core collapses. Within a fraction of a second, the star implodes. Moving at about the quarter of the speed of sunshine , feeding even more mass into the core.
It’s at this very moment that each one the heavier elements in the universe are created, because the star dies, during a super nova explosion. This produces either a star , or if the star is very large enough, the whole mass of the core collapses into a black hole. If you checked out a black hole, what you’d really be seeing is that the event horizon. Anything that crosses the event horizon must be travelling faster than the speed of light to escape. In other words, its impossible. So we just see a black sphere reflecting nothing. But if the event horizon is that the black part, what’s the “hole” part of the black hole? The singularity.
We’re unsure what it is exactly. A singularity could also be indefinitely dense, meaning all its mass is concentrated into one point in space, with no surface or volume, or something completely different. Right now, we just don’t know. its sort of a “dividing by zero”error. By the way, black holes don’t suck things up like a vacuum cleaner, If we were to swap the sun for an equally massive region , nothing much would change for earth, except that we might freeze to death, of course. what would happen to you if you fell into a black hole? The experience of your time is different around black holes, from the surface , you seem to hamper as you approach the event horizon, so time passes slower for you.
At some point, you’d appear to freeze in time, slowly turn red, and disapear. While from your perspective, you’ll watch the rest of the universe in fast forward, quite like seeing into the future. Right now, we don’t know what happens next, but we expect it could be one of two things: One, you die a fast death. A region curves space so much, that when you cross the event horizon, there’s only one possible direction. you’ll take this – literally – inside the event horizon, you’ll only go in one direction. Its like being during a really tight alley that closes behind you after each step.
The mass of a region is so concentrated, at some point even tiny distances of some centimeters, would means gravity acts with millions of times more force on different parts of your body. Your cells get torn apart, as your body stretches more and more, until you’re a hot stream of plasma, one atom wide. Two, you die a really quick death. Very soon after you cross the event horizon, you’d hit a firewall and be terminated in an instant. Neither of those options are particularly pleasant. How soon you’d die depends on the mass of the black hole.
A smaller region would kill you before you even enter its event horizon, while you almost certainly could travel inside a super size massive black hole for quite a while. As a rule of thumb, the further faraway from the singularity you are, the longer you reside . Black holes are available different sizes. There are stellar mass black holes, with some times the mass of sun, and therefore the diameter of an asteroid. then there are the super massive black holes, which are found at the guts of every galaxy, and are feeding for billions of years. Currently, the most important super massive black hole known, is S5 0014+81.
40 billion times the mass of our sun. It is 236.7 billion kilometers in diameter, which is 47 times the space from the sun to Pluto. As powerful as black holes are, they’re going to eventually evaporate through a process called Hawking radiation. to know how this works, we’ve to look at empty space. Empty space isn’t really empty, but crammed with virtual particles popping into existence and annihilating each other again. When this happens right the edge of a black hole, one among the virtual particles will be drawn into the black hole, and therefore the other will escape and become a real particle.
So the black hole is losing energy. This happens incredibly slowly initially , and gets faster because the black hole becomes smaller. When it arrives at the mass of an outsized asteroid, its radiating at temperature . When it’s the mass of a mountain, it radiates with about the warmth of our sun. and within the last second of its life, the region radiates away with the energy of billions of nuclear bombs in a huge explosion. But this process is incredibly slow, the most important black holes we know, might take up a googol year to evaporate. this is often so long that when the last black hole radiates away, nobody are going to be around to witness it.